Mergers and Acquisition – A Case Study and Analysis of HP-Compaq Merger

Brief Description

The following is a short description of the 2 firms:


It all started within the 12 months 1938 when two electrical engineering graduates from Stanford University known as William Hewlett and David Packard began their enterprise in a storage in Palo Alto. In a 12 months’s time, the partnership known as Hewlett-Packard was made and by the 12 months 1947, HP was included. The firm has been prospering ever since as its income grew from 5 and half million {dollars} in 1951 to about 3 billion {dollars} in 1981. The tempo of development knew no bounds as HP’s internet income went as much as 42 billion {dollars} in 1997. Starting with manufacturing audio oscillators, the corporate made its first pc within the 12 months 1966 and it was by 1972 that it launched the idea of private computing by a calculator first which was additional superior into a private pc within the 12 months 1980. The firm can be identified for the laser-printer which it launched within the 12 months 1985.


The firm is best generally known as Compaq Computer Corporation. This was firm that began itself as a private pc firm within the 12 months 1982. It had the appeal of being known as the most important producers of private computing units worldwide. The firm was fashioned by two senior managers at Texas Instruments. The identify of the corporate had come from-“Compatibility and Quality”. The firm launched its first pc within the 12 months 1983 after at a worth of 2995 {dollars}. In spite of being transportable, the issue with the pc was that it appeared to be a suitcase. Nevertheless, there have been big business advantages from the pc because it bought greater than 53,000 models within the first 12 months with a income technology of 111 million {dollars}.

Reasons for the Merger

A quite simple query that arises right here is that, if HP was progressing at such an amazing tempo, what was the explanation that the corporate needed to merge with Compaq? Carly Fiorina, who grew to become the CEO of HP within the 12 months 1999, had a key position to play within the merger that passed off in 2001. She was the primary lady to have taken over as CEO of such an enormous firm and the primary outsider too. She labored very effectively as she travelled greater than 250,000 miles within the first 12 months as a CEO. Her fundamental goal was to modernize the tradition of operation of HP. She laid nice emphasis on the worthwhile sides of the enterprise. This reveals that she was very extravagant in her method as a CEO. In spite of the expansion out there worth of HP’s share from 54.43 to 74.48 {dollars}, the corporate was nonetheless inefficient. This was as a result of it couldn’t meet the targets because of a failure of each firm and business. HP was pressured to chop down on jobs and even be eluded from the privilege of having Price Water House Cooper’s to take care of its audit. So, even the job of Fiorina was underneath risk. This meant that enchancment within the inner methods of the corporate was not going to be adequate for the corporate’s success. Ultimately, the corporate needed to actually plan out one thing totally different. So, it was determined that the corporate can be buying Compaq in a inventory transaction whose internet price was 25 billion {dollars}. Initially, this merger was not deliberate. It began with a telephonic dialog between CEO HP, Fiorina and Chairman and CEO Compaq, Capellas. The thought behind the dialog was to debate on a licensing settlement however it continued as a dialogue on aggressive technique and lastly a merger. It took two months for additional research and by September, 2001, the boards of the 2 firms authorised of the merger. In spite of the choice coming from the CEO of HP, the merger was strongly opposed within the firm. The two CEOs believed that the one approach to battle the rising competitors in phrases of costs was to have a merger. But the traders and the opposite stakeholders thought that the corporate would by no means have the ability to have the loyalty of the Compaq clients, if merchandise are bought with an HP brand on it. Other than this, there have been questions on the synchronization of the group’s members with one another. This was as a result of of the change within the group tradition as nicely. Even although these had been speculated to severe issues with respect to the merger, the CEO of HP, Fiorina justified the identical with the truth that the merger would take away one severe competitor within the over-equipped PC market of these days. She stated that the market share of the corporate is sure to extend with the merger and additionally the working unit would double. (Hoopes, 2001)

Advantages of the Merger

Even although it appeared to be advantageous to only a few individuals at first, it was the robust dedication of Fiorina that she was in a position to stand by her choice. Wall Street and all her traders had gone towards the corporate lampooning her concepts with the saying that she has made 1+1=1.5 by her extravagant methods of enlargement. Fiorina had put it this fashion that after the corporate’s merger, not solely wouldn’t it have a bigger share out there but in addition the models of manufacturing would double. This would imply that the corporate would develop tremendously in quantity. Her dream of competing with the giants within the area, IBM would additionally come true. She was of the view that a lot of the redundancy within the two firms would lower as the inner prices on promotion, advertising and marketing and delivery would come down with the merger. This would produce the slightest hurt to the gathering of income. She used the concepts of aggressive positioning to justify her plans of the merger. She stated that the merger relies on the ideologies of consolidation and not on diversification. She might additionally defend allegations towards the change within the HP was. She was of the view that the HP has all the time inspired adjustments as it’s about innovating and taking daring steps. She stated that the corporate requires being according to creativity, enchancment and modification. This merger had the aptitude of offering precisely the identical. (Mergers and Acquisitions, 2010)

Advantages to the Shareholders

The following are the methods by which the corporate could be advantageous to its shareholders:

Unique Opportunity: The place of the enterprise is sure to raised with the merger. The purpose for a similar was that now the worth creation can be recent, management qualities would enhance, capabilities would enhance and so would the gross sales and additionally the corporate’s strategic differentiation can be higher than the prevailing opponents. Other than this, one also can entry the capabilities of Compaq straight therefore decreasing the associated fee construction in turning into the most important within the business. Finally, one might additionally see a chance in reinvesting.

Stronger Company: The profitability is sure to extend within the enterprise, entry and companies sectors in excessive levels. The firm also can see a greater alternative in its analysis and growth. The monetary situations of the corporate with respect to its EBIT and internet money are additionally on the incremental aspect.

Compelling Economics: The anticipated accumulation in IIP positive aspects can be 13% within the first monetary 12 months. The firm might additionally conduct a greater segmentation of the market to forecast its revenues technology. This would go to as a lot as 2 and a half billion {dollars} of annual synergy.

Ability to Execute: As there can be integration within the planning procedures of the corporate, the possibilities of worth creation would even be big. Along with that the expertise of main a diversified worker construction would even be there. (HP to purchase Compaq, 2001)
Opposition to the Merger

In reality, it was solely CEO Fiorina who was in favor of going with the merger. This is a sensible utility of Agency drawback that arises as a result of of change in monetary methods of the corporate house owners and the administration. Fiorina was sure to lose her job if the merger did not take impact. The purpose was that HP was not in a position to meet the demand targets underneath her management. But the house owners had been towards the merger because of the following beliefs of the house owners:

The new portfolio can be much less preferable: The place of the corporate as a bigger provider of PCs will surely improve the quantity of threat and contain so much of funding as nicely. Another vital purpose on this context is that HP’s prime curiosity in Imaging and Printing wouldn’t exist anymore because of this diluting the curiosity of the stockholders. In reality the corporate house owners additionally really feel that there can be a decrease margin and ROI (return on funding).

Strategic Problems would stay Unsolved: The market place in excessive-finish servers and companies would nonetheless stay in spite of the merger. The worth of the PCS wouldn’t come right down to be inexpensive by all. The requisite change in materials for imaging and printing additionally wouldn’t exist. This merger would haven’t any impact on the low finish servers as Dell can be there within the lead and excessive-finish servers both the place IBM and Sun would have the lead. The firm would even be eluded from the benefits of outsourcing as a result of of the excess labor it might have. So, the standard will not be assured to enhance. Finally, the merger wouldn’t equal IBM underneath any situation as thought by Fiorina.

Huge Integrated Risks: There have been no examples of success with such big mergers. Generally when the market would not help such mergers, do not do nicely as is the case right here. When HP couldn’t handle its group correctly, integration would solely add on to the difficulties. It can be much more tough underneath the situations as a result of of the prevailing competitions between HP and Compaq. Being liable to such dangerous situations, the corporate would additionally must fluctuate its prices inflicting larger bother for the proprietor. The greatest issue of all is that to combine the tradition present within the two firms can be a really tough job.

Financial Impact: This is generally as a result of the market reactions are unfavourable. On the opposite hand, the place of Compaq was completely totally different from HP. As the corporate would have a larger contribution to the income and HP being diluted on the similar time, the issues are sure to develop. This would imply that drawing cash from the fairness market would even be tough for HP. In reality this may not appear to be a really worthwhile merger for Compaq as nicely sooner or later.

The fundamental drawback that the house owners of the corporate had with this merger was that it might hamper the core values of HP. They felt that it’s higher to protect wealth reasonably than to threat it with extravagant threat taking. This excessive threat profile of Fiorina was a bit unacceptable for the house owners of the corporate in mild of its prospects.

So, so far as this merger between HP and Compaq is anxious, on aspect there was this robust dedication of the CEO, Fiorina and on the opposite aspect was the robust opposition from the corporate house owners. This opposition continued from the market together with all of the traders of the corporate. So, this sensible Agency drawback was very well-known contemplating the truth that it contained two of essentially the most highly effective {hardware} firms on the earth. There had been a quantity of choices like Change Management, Economic clever Management, and Organizational Management which may very well be thought of to research the difficulty. But this case examine could be solved greatest by a technique clever evaluation. (HP-Compaq merger faces stiff opposition from shareholders inventory costs fall once more, 2001)

Strategic Analysis of the Case

Positive Aspects

A CEO will all the time contemplate such a merger to be an event to take a aggressive benefit over its rivals like IBM as on this case and even be of some curiosity to the shareholders as nicely. The following are the methods which are associated to this merger between HP and Compaq:

* Having a watch over shareholders’ worth: If one sees this merger from the eyes of Fiorina, it might make sure that the shareholders have so much to achieve from it. The purpose for a similar is the increment within the management of the market. So, even of the situations weren’t appropriate from the monetary perspective, this reality will surely make so much of income for the corporate sooner or later.

* Development of Markets: Two organizations become involved in mergers as they need to develop their market each on the home and the worldwide stage. Integration with a home firm would not want a lot effort however when an organization merges internationally as on this case, a difficult job is on head. A thorough state of affairs scanning is important earlier than placing your ft in International area. Here, the competitor for HP was Compaq to a big diploma, so this merger actually required so much of considering. Organizations merge with the worldwide firms with a view to arrange their manufacturers first and let individuals find out about what they’re succesful of and additionally what they eye sooner or later. This is the explanation that after this merger the merchandise of Compaq would even have the emblem of HP. Once the market is nicely-identified, then HP wouldn’t must undergo the branding created by Compaq. They would have the ability to draw all the shoppers of Compaq as nicely.

* Propagated Efficiencies: Any firm by buying one other or by merging makes an try so as to add to its efficiencies by rising the operations and additionally having management over it to the utmost extent. We can see that HP would now have an elevated set of workers. The solely issue is that they must be managed correctly as they’re of totally different organizational cultures. (Benefits of Mergers:, 2010)

* Allowances to make use of extra assets: An improvised group of financial assets, mental capital and uncooked supplies affords a aggressive benefit to the businesses. When such firms merge, many of the intellects come collectively and work in direction of a standard mission to excel with monetary income to the corporate. Here, one cannot deny the truth that even the highest brains of Compaq can be participating in forming the methods of the corporate sooner or later.

* Management of dangers: If we notably take an instance of this case, HP and Compaq coming into into this merger can lower the chance stage they’d have diversified enterprise alternatives. The choices for making alternative of the availability chain additionally improve. Now although HP is a pioneer in inkjet orienting, it might not have to make use of the Product based mostly Facility structure which is dearer. It can handle the chance of taking course of based mostly facility structure and make issues cheaper. Manufacturing and Processing can now be carried out in numerous nations in accordance with the associated fee viability as the main concern.

* Listing potential: Even although Wall Street and all of the traders of the corporate are towards the merger, when IPOs are supplied, a growth will certainly be there as a result of of the flourishing earnings and turnover worth which HP can be making with this merger.

* Necessary political laws: When organizations take a leap into different nations, they should contemplate the totally different laws in that nation which administer the insurance policies of the place. As HP is already a pioneer in all of the international locations that Compaq used to do its enterprise, this is able to not be of a lot issue for the corporate. The firm would solely must make sure minor laws with the political events of some international locations the place Compaq was flourishing greater than HP.

* Better Opportunities: When firms merge with one other firm, later they’ll put up on the market as per because the wants of the corporate. This is also carried out partially. If HP feels that it might not want a lot of warehouse house it may promote the identical at elevated income. It is determined by whether or not the corporate would now be regarded a s a make to inventory or a make to order firm.

* Extra merchandise, companies, and amenities: Services get copyrights which boosts the extent of commerce. Additional Warehouse companies and distribution channels supply enterprise values. Here HP can use all such values built-in with Compaq in order to extend its prospects. (Berry, 2010)

Negative Aspects

There are a quantity of mergers and acquisitions that fail earlier than they really begin to operate. In the important part of implementation itself, the businesses come to know that it might not be useful in the event that they proceed as a merger. This can happen on this merger between HP and Compaq because of the following causes.

Conversations will not be applied: Because of in contrast to cultures, ambitions and threat profiles; many of the offers are cancelled. As per because the reactions of the house owners of HP, this appears to be extraordinarily seemingly. So, motivation amongst the workers is an especially vital consideration on this case. This requires an additional effort by the CEO, Fiorina. This might additionally assist her keep her place within the firm.

Legal Contemplations: Anti-competitive offers are sometimes restricted by the foundations presiding over the competitors guidelines in a rustic. This results in out of order functioning of one firm and they attempt to separate from one another. A lot of pointless advertising and marketing failures get hooked up to those situations. If this occurs on this case, then all that cash which went in publicizing the enterprise would go to be a waste. Moreover, much more can be required to re-promote as a single entity. Even the packaging the place the whole stock from Compaq had the emblem of HP must be re-carried out, thus hampering the finance even additional. (Broc Romanek, 2002)

Compatibility issues: Every firm runs on totally different platforms and concepts. Compatibility issues typically happen as a result of of synchronization points. In IT firms equivalent to HP and Compaq, many issues can happen as a result of each the businesses have labored on totally different methods previously. Now, it may not appear needed for the HP administration to make adjustments as per as these from Compaq. Thus such issues have turn out to be of biggest concern nowadays.

Fiscal catastrophes: Both the businesses after signing an settlement hope to have some return on the cash they’ve put in to make this merger occur and additionally need profitability and turnovers. If because of any purpose, they aren’t in a position to attain that place, then they develop a abhorrence sense in direction of one another and additionally begin charging one another for the failure.

Human Resource Differences: Problems because of this of cultural dissimilarities, hospitality and hostility points, and additionally different habits associated points can take aside the origin of the merger.

Lack of Determination: When organizations contain, they’ve plans of their minds, they’ve a imaginative and prescient set; however as a result of of a range of issues as talked about above, growth of the mixed firm to perform its mission is delayed. Merged firms set the purpose and when the purpose will not be achieved because of some faults of any of the 2; then each of them develop a sure diploma of hatred for one another. Also clashes can happen as a result of of bias reactions. (William, 2008)

Risk administration failure: Companies which are concerned in mergers and acquisitions, turn out to be over assured that they will make a revenue out of this choice. This could be seen as with Fiorina. In reality she will be able to battle the entire world for that. When their self-confidence seems into over-confidence then they fail. Adequate threat administration strategies must be adopted which might take care of the results if the choice takes a downturn. These threat insurance policies ought to rule fiscal, productions, advertising and marketing, manufacturing, and stock and HR dangers related to the merger.

Strategic Sharing


Hp and Compaq would now have frequent channels so far as their shopping for is anxious. So, the advantages on this concern is that even for these supplies which had been initially of excessive value for HP would now be obtainable at a less expensive worth. The finish customers are additionally more likely to improve. Now, the corporate can re body its aggressive technique the place the best concern could be given to all time rivals IBM. The benefits of this merger within the area of advertising and marketing could be seen within the case of shared branding, gross sales and service. Even the distribution process is more likely to be enhanced with Compaq taking part in its half. Now, the corporate can sit up for cross promoting, subsidization and additionally a lowered value.

The foremost benefit on this space is that within the location of uncooked materials. Even the processing model can be similar making the merchandise and companies synchronized with the concepts and additionally in making a good operational technique. As the philosophical and mechanical management would even be in frequent, the operational technique would now be to turn out to be the highest most out there. In this respect, the 2 firms would now have co-manufacturing, design and additionally location of employees. So, the operational technique of HP would now be to make use of the method based mostly facility structure and operate with the talked about shared values.

The technical technique of the corporate may also be designed in frequent now. There is an obstacle from the angle of the differentiation that HP had within the area of inkjet printers however the benefits are additionally plentiful. With a standard product and course of know-how, the technological technique of the merged firm would promote extremely economical functioning. This could be carried out via a standard analysis and growth and designing group.

The shopping for technique of the corporate would additionally observe a standard mechanism. Here, the uncooked supplies, equipment, and energy can be frequent therefore reducing the associated fee as soon as once more. This could be carried out via a centralized mechanism with a lead purchaser preserving frequent insurance policies in thoughts. Now Hp must assume with an analogous angle for each inkjet printers in addition to private computer systems. This is as a result of the parameters for manufacturing would additionally run on equal grounds.

This is crucial half of the methods that might be made after the merger. The firms would have frequent shareholders for offering the requisite infrastructure. The capital supply, administration model, and laws would even be in frequent. So, the infrastructure methods must take this stuff under consideration. This could be carried out by having a standard accounting system. HP does have an choice to have a separate accounting system for the merchandise that it manufactures however that might solely arouse an inner competitors. So, the infrastructural advantages could be made via a standard accounting, authorized and human useful resource system. This would be certain that the funding relations of the corporate would enhance. None of the Compaq traders would hesitate in investing if HP follows a standard technique.

HP would now have to make sure one other proven fact that with this merger they’d have the ability to show opponents to the current goal and these of opponents like IBM as nicely. Even the operations and the output market must be above what exists at current. The firm wants to make sure that the company technique that it makes use of is environment friendly sufficient to assist such a future. The diploma of diversification must be managed completely as nicely. This is as a result of; the merchandise from the 2 firms have carried out exceptionally nicely previously. So, essentially the most optimum diploma of diversification is required underneath the context in order that the corporate is ready to meet the calls for of the shoppers. This has been challenged by the house owners of HP however must be carried by the CEO Fiorina. (Bhattacharya, 2010)

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